Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC): An international research and development consortium dedicated to enhancing the capabilities of the lead-acid battery to ensure its competitiveness in various energy storage markets. Doe Run is a founding and current member of ALABC.

Alloy: A mixture of metals.

ASARCO Inc.: A former lead mining and smelting company that operated in Missouri, from which Doe Run purchased some properties.

Baghouse: A type of ventilation system used to control air emissions and reduce dust to improve environmental performance.

Behavior Based Safety (BBS): A system used internationally, often by manufacturing industries, that uses demonstration, one-on-one observation and job feedback to recognize safe behaviors and explore behavioral reasons for unsafe acts. 

Chat: A gravel-like waste product from the milling/mining process used before froth flotation was developed in the 1920s. Chat contains minor amounts of lead, zinc and other metals.

Concentrate: A term used to describe the product created after raw ore is milled, then physically separated from waste rock (tailings).

Electrocoagulation: A water treatment process that removes metal particles from water using electrical currents.

Electrowinning: In a specialized tank, a current is passed from inert carbon-based anodes through a liquid leaching solution, which contains dissolved metal. The electrical current causes the metal to be deposited onto cathodes, where it is later harvested. 

Emissions(1)The gases and particles put into the air or emitted by various sources.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)(1)The national federal agency whose mission is to protect human health and safeguard the natural environment.

Flocculation: A water treatment process in which chemicals encourage metal particles to cluster together to settle out of the water.

Galena: Lead sulfide, the most common type of lead ore.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO): The world’s largest developer of international standards, including standards for environmental management and product quality and safety.

Job Safety Analysis (JSA)(2): A multi-step safety process that encourages employees to evaluate a job to identify potential hazards and determine safe job procedures. Employees document the information for coworkers and future employees. 

Lead(3): A soft, malleable, dense metallic element that is extracted chiefly from galena. It is also found in ore with zinc, silver and copper.

Milling: The process that extracts much of the desirable mineral from ore through screening, crushing and grinding.

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA)(4): The federal enforcement agency responsible for the health and safety of miners.

Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR): The Missouri governing body that provides assistance, education and guidance in the use and protection of Missouri’s natural resources.

Missouri Enterprise: An organization that provides business, technical and manufacturing optimization services for Missouri businesses.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)(2)The federal agency charged with enforcing safety and health legislation, specifically for the workplace.

Ore: A naturally occurring mineral containing a valuable constituent (as metal) for which it is mined and worked.

Parts Per Trillion (ppt): A measure of concentration used to easily compare environmental situations. One ppt is 1 part in 1,000,000,000,000.

Primary Lead: Lead metal produced from extracted lead-bearing ore. Primary lead is sometimes called virgin lead.

Remediation: Activities conducted to restore sites impacted by mining and mineral processing by removing the materials and stabilizing the surface, or by encapsulation. Also called reclamation. 

Secondary Lead: Lead produced from recycling lead-bearing material.

Smelting(3)The process of reducing lead-bearing material into metallic lead in a furnace. The end result is refined lead.

St. Joe Shovel: The world’s first electric shovel for mining, which was designed by engineers at St. Joseph Lead Company.

St. Joseph Lead Company: A Doe Run predecessor company operating in southeast Missouri.

Tailings: Ground-up, sand-sized rock that is the byproduct of milling and mining; often called the “tail end” of the mining process.

Source of Definitions:
(1) EPA
(2) OSHA
(3) International Lead Association
(4) MSHA