Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC): An international research and development consortium dedicated to enhancing the capabilities of the lead-acid battery to ensure its competitiveness in various energy storage markets. Doe Run is a founding and current member of ALABC.
Alloy: A mixture of metals.
ASARCO Inc.: A former lead mining and smelting company that operated in Missouri, from which Doe Run purchased some properties.
Baghouse: A type of ventilation system used to control air emissions and reduce dust to improve environmental performance.
Behavior Based Safety (BBS): A system used internationally, often by manufacturing industries, that uses demonstration, one-on-one observation and job feedback to recognize safe behaviors and explore behavioral reasons for unsafe acts.
Chat: A gravel-like waste product from the milling/mining process used before froth flotation was developed in the 1920s. Chat contains minor amounts of lead, zinc and other metals.
Concentrate: A term used to describe the product created after raw ore is milled, then physically separated from waste rock (tailings).
Electrocoagulation: A water treatment process that removes metal particles from water using electrical currents.
Electrowinning: In a specialized tank, a current is passed from inert carbon-based anodes through a liquid leaching solution, which contains dissolved metal. The electrical current causes the metal to be deposited onto cathodes, where it is later harvested.
Emissions(1): The gases and particles put into the air or emitted by various sources.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)(1): The national federal agency whose mission is to protect human health and safeguard the natural environment.
Flocculation: A water treatment process in which chemicals encourage metal particles to cluster together to settle out of the water.
Galena: Lead sulfide, the most common type of lead ore.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO): The world’s largest developer of international standards, including standards for environmental management and product quality and safety.
Job Safety Analysis (JSA)(2): A multi-step safety process that encourages employees to evaluate a job to identify potential hazards and determine safe job procedures. Employees document the information for coworkers and future employees.
Lead(3): A soft, malleable, dense metallic element that is extracted chiefly from galena. It is also found in ore with zinc, silver and copper.
Milling: The process that extracts much of the desirable mineral from ore through screening, crushing and grinding.
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA)(4): The federal enforcement agency responsible for the health and safety of miners.
Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR): The Missouri governing body that provides assistance, education and guidance in the use and protection of Missouri’s natural resources.
Missouri Enterprise: An organization that provides business, technical and manufacturing optimization services for Missouri businesses.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)(2): The federal agency charged with enforcing safety and health legislation, specifically for the workplace.
Ore: A naturally occurring mineral containing a valuable constituent (as metal) for which it is mined and worked.
Parts Per Trillion (ppt): A measure of concentration used to easily compare environmental situations. One ppt is 1 part in 1,000,000,000,000.
Primary Lead: Lead metal produced from extracted lead-bearing ore. Primary lead is sometimes called virgin lead.
Remediation: Activities conducted to restore sites impacted by mining and mineral processing by removing the materials and stabilizing the surface, or by encapsulation. Also called reclamation.
Secondary Lead: Lead produced from recycling lead-bearing material.
Smelting(3): The process of reducing lead-bearing material into metallic lead in a furnace. The end result is refined lead.
St. Joe Shovel: The world’s first electric shovel for mining, which was designed by engineers at St. Joseph Lead Company.
St. Joseph Lead Company: A Doe Run predecessor company operating in southeast Missouri.
Tailings: Ground-up, sand-sized rock that is the byproduct of milling and mining; often called the “tail end” of the mining process.
Source of Definitions:
(3) International Lead Association